TECHNICAL INFORMATION

DESCRIPTION AND PARTICULARITIES OF STEEL
EFFECT OF ALLOY ELEMENTS ON STEEL
UNIT WEIGHTS OF STEEL RODS
HEAT TREATMENTS APPLIED TO STEELS
HARDNESS TRANSFORMATION TABLE
NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS
DESCRIPTION AND PARTICULARITIES OF STEEL

STEEL is an Iron (Fe) Carbon (C) alloy. There are alloy elements and impurity elements other than C at different ratios.It is the chemical composition of elements and internal structure of steel that gives different particularities to steel. Not only alloy elements can be added to steel at different ratios but also steel of various characteristics can be obtained through various processes (quenching and tempering, normalization etc.) by controlling the internal structure.

Manganese (Mn), Phosphorus (P), Sulfur (S) and Silicon (Si) are elements derived from raw material in the course of production and are included at certain rates within the steel. Other elements (Cr, Ni etc.) are added in desired amounts to steel in ferro-alliages.

Steel is made in two ways of iron ore or scrap via recycling. After production of liquid steel, it is shaped as ingot via casting or as log or bloom via permanent casting method.

High quality alloys are unalloyed, low alloyed and alloyed steels distinguished from mass production steels at some points.

These points are;
1- Production method,
2- Means of production,
3- Amounts of gas dissolved with S, P and other impurities at low limits.

Steels are generally classified as follows;
1- According to compositions as carbon and alloyed steel,
2- According to production methods,
3- According to semi-finishing method
4- According to product shape
5- according to place of use, production programmes and deoxidation conditions

The fundamental characteristics of steels can be summarized as follows;
1- A great majority of steels are sensitive to heat treatments. It can be fully provided the chemical composition as well as the hardness, mechanical and physical characteristics, electrical particularity, corrosion and high temperature resistance features desired as a result of applied heat treatments.
2- Steels can be shaped after they are heated up to temperatures their structure requires. (Rolling, Pressing, Forging)
3- Besides, steels that are suitable in terms of chemical composition and internal structure can be cold worked via methods such as rolling and pressing.
4- They can be processed in machining benches to get desired form and surface smoothness.
5- Steels, which are suitable in terms of chemical composition can be merged with welding process.
6- A majority of the steels are suitable for metal coating, enameling, painting and covering with plastic substances via various methods.


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