STAINLESS STEELS

Stainless steels are those which contain at least 11% chromium in their composition. Stainless steels are perfectly resistant to corrosion, usable in low and high temperatures and easily shapeable. Chemical composition is changed to obtain alloys featuring differently in stainless steels. The alloy elements determining the internal structure are chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese in the order of significance. Stainless steels can be divided into 5 main groups in terms of their internal structure.

. Ferritic: They are steels containing 12-18% Cr. These steels are used in kitchen utensils and decorative applications.Resistance is not increased in heat treatment, and they are used in annealed condition only. Their welding capacity is low and they are magnetic. (For example 409,430, 439 quality)

. ? Martensitic: Steels with more than C 0,1% have an austenitic structure at high temperatures. Austenite temperature is between 950-1050 C in view of the type of the steel. If the steel kept at the temperature is quenched, a martensitic structure is achieved. The steels are procured as annealed or underwent quenching and tempering treatment. Heat treatment can be applied. They are magnetic and their welding capacity is low. These steels are used in knives, surgery tools, shafts and pins (For example: 410,420,440C quality)

. Austenitic: It has 18% chromium and 18% nickel in its base composition. Its corrosion resistance and welding capacity are high, and it is not magnetic. The steels are used for elevators, façade coatings, computer keyboard springs ,kitchen utensils, architectural applications (For example: 301, 304, 304L, 309, 310,310S, 316, 316L, 316Ti, 321, 347 quality)

. Duplex: They are steels containing a high rate of chromium (18-28%) and a medium amount of nickel (4,5-8%). They can be welded well and are shapeable. These steels are used in petro-chemistry plants at sea and salty water environment. (For example 2205, 329 quality)

. ? Those which can be applied precipitation hardening: These can be austenitic, semi-austenitic or martensitic in terms of internal structure. Alloying is made for precipitation formation with the elements of aluminum, titanium, niobium and copper. Thus, stainless steels with endurances up to 1700 MPa are obtained. They are magnetic, they show very high mechanical strength with good welding capacity. These steels are used in pump and valve shafts (For example: 631 quality)



      CHEMICAL COMPOSITION                
Material No Symbol AISI-SAE C Si(max) Mn(max) P (max) S (max) Cr Mo Ni Other
1.4006 X10Cr13 410 0,08
0,12
1 1 0,045 0,03 12,00
14,00
     
1.4016 X8Cr17 430 ≤ 0,08 1 1 0,045 0,03 15,50
17,50
     
1.4021 X20Cr13 420 0,17
0,22
1 1 0,045 0,03 12,00
14,00
     
1.4057 X22CrNi17 431 0,15
0,23
1 1 0,045 0,03 16,00
18,00
     
1.4301 X5CrNi18 9 304 ≤ 0,07 1 2 0,045 0,03 17,00
20,00
  8,50
10,50
 
1.4305 X12CrNiS 18 8 303 ≤ 0,15 1 2 0,045 0,15
0,35
17,00
19,00
  8,00
10,00
 
1.4306 X2CrNi18 9 304L ≤ 0,03 1 2 0,045 0,03 17,00
20,00
  10,00
12,50
 
1.4310 X12CrNi17 7 301 0,08
0,14
1 2 0,045 0,03 16,00
18,00
≤ 0,08 6,50
9,00
 
1.4401 X5CrNiMo 18 10 316 ≤ 0,07 1 2 0,045 0,03 16,50
18,50
2,00
2,50
10,50
13,50
 
1.4404 X2CrNiMo 18 10 316L ≤ 0,03 1 2 0,045 0,03 16,50
18,50
2,00
2,50
11,00
14,00
 
1.4512 X5CrTi12 409 ≤ 0,08 1 1 0,045 0,03 10,50
12,50
    Ti≥ 6x%C≤ 1,00
1.4541 X10CrNTi 18 9 321 ≤ 0,10 1 2 0,045 0,03 17,00
19,00
  9,00
11,50
Ti≥ 5x%C
1.4571 X10CrNiMoTi 18 316Ti ≤ 0,11 1 2 0,045 0,03 16,50
18,50
2,00
2,50
10,50
13,50
Ti≥ 5x%C


Symbol AISI-SAE FIELDS OF USE
X10Cr13 410 construction parts for water and steam
X8Cr17 430 Body parts in automobile industry, in bumper production, kitchen utensils
X20Cr13 420 High resistance parts such as axle, shaft, pump, valve cone
X22CrNi17 431 High-resistance construction parts in food, soap, vinegar industry
X5CrNi18 9 304 houseware, kitchen devices, architectural and automotive applications
X12CrNiS 18 8 303 oil, soap, painting , paper and textile industry
X2CrNi18 9 304L chemistry, petrochemistry, paper and leather industry
X12CrNi17 7 301 high-resistance iron sheet in vehicle making
X5CrNiMo 18 10 316 In steam boilers, petrochemistry, chemistry industry and food industry
X2CrNiMo 18 10 316L in steam boilers, petrochemistry, chemistry industry and food industry, façade coatings in architecture
X5CrTi12 409 In sound absorber and exhaust systems in automobiles
X10CrNTi 18 9 321 In chemistry industry, fittings, welded apparatus and warehouse building
X10CrNiMoTi 18 316Ti petrochemistry, paint plants, tar industry, cellulose production, resin

HEAT TREATMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF STEELS RESISTANT TO CORROSION AND ACID

      forging and rolling soft annealing   Hardening or rapid cooling Resistance-Hardness Tempering temperature based on endurance [RSD-C]
        annealing period cooling
Material No Symbol AISI-SAE ᵒC ash air stove sand ᵒC min hour air stove water ᵒC air oil water Mpa BSD30 RSD-C Mpa ᵒC
1.4006 X10Cr13 410 1150
750
- * - - 750
850
- 2-6 * * - 950
1000
* * - 1030 305 31 590
740
750
700
1.4016 X8Cr17 430 1150
750
- * - - 750
850
20-30 - * - * - - - - - - - - -
1.4021 X20Cr13 420 1150
750
* (*) - - 750
850
- 2-6 - * - 980
1030
* * - 1570 450 47 640
930
750
650
1.4057 X22CrNi17 431 1150
750
* - - - 700
750
- 3-4 - * - 1000
1050
- * - 1570 450 47 780
930
720
630
1.4301 X5CrNi18 9 304 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1000
1050
* - - - - - -
1.4305 X12CrNiS 18 8 303 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1000
1050
* - - - - - -
1.4306 X2CrNi18 9 304L 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1000
1050
* - - - - - -
1.4310 X12CrNi17 7 301 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1000
1050
* - - - - - -
1.4401 X5CrNiMo 18 10 316 1150
750
- * - -   - - - - - 1050
1100
* - - - - - -
1.4404 X2CrNiMo 18 10 316L 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1050
1100
* - - - - - -
1.4512 X5CrTi12 409 1150
750
- * - - 750
800
20-30 - * - - - - - - - - - - -
1.4541 X10CrNTi 18 9 321 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1020
1070
* - - - - - -
1.4571 X10CrNiMoTi 18 316Ti 1150
750
- * - - - - - - - - 1050
1100
* - - - - - -

MECHANICAL PARTICULARITIES OF STEELS RESISTANT TO CORROSION AND ACID

      Status Hardness [RSD-C] BSD 30 Rp ₒ,2 (%0,2 yielding point) Rp 1
%1
elongation
≥Mpa
Rm
Tensile
strength
Mpa
A
rupture
≥ %
Z
shrinkage
≥ %
notch impact
(DVM)
≥ %
      20 50 100 150 200 300 400 500 550
Material No Symbol AISI-SAE Annealed quenching and tempering hardness Rapid cooling ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC ᵒC
1.4006 X10Cr13 410 * - - - 140
180
300 285 275 265 260 245 215 - - - 550
700
20 - 85
1.4016 X8Cr17 430 * - - - 130
170
270 - - - - - - - - - 450
660
20 60 -
1.4021 X20Cr13 420 - * - - 180
230
450 430 420 410 400 365 305 - - - 650
800
18 50 55
1.4057 X22CrNi17 431 * - - - ≤275 - - - - - - - - - - ≤950 - - -
1.4301 X5CrNi18 9 304 - - - * 130
180
185 175 155 140 127 110 98 92 90 225 500
700
50 60 85
1.4305 X12CrNiS 18 8 303 - - - * 130
180
215 - - - - - - - - 225 500
700
50 60 85
1.4306 X2CrNi18 9 304L - - - * 120
180
175 165 145 130 118 100 89 81 80 215 450
700
50 60 85
1.4310 X12CrNi17 7 301 - - - * 170
220
350 - - - - - - - - 390 700
950
45 50 105
1.4401 X5CrNiMo 18 10 316 - - - * 130
180
205 195 175 158 145 127 115 110 108 245 500
700
45 60 85
1.4404 X2CrNiMo 18 10 316L - - - * 120
180
195 185 165 150 137 119 108 100 98 235 450
700
45 60 85
1.4512 X5CrTi12 409 * - - - 130
180
260 240 230 210 200 190 180 - - - 400
600
30 - -
1.4541 X10CrNTi 18 9 321 - - - * 130
190
205 190 176 165 155 136 125 119 118 245 500
750
40 50 85
1.4571 X10CrNiMoTi 18 316Ti - - - * 130
190
225 205 190 176 165 145 135 129 127 265 500
750
40 50 85

PHYSICAL PARTICULARITIES OF STEELS RESISTANT TO CORROSION AND ACID

      Average heat expansion factor between
20 °C and temperatures below
Specific gravity Specific heat heat conducting capacity
(20 ᵒC)
electricity resistance
(20 ᵒC)
elastic module
(20 ᵒC)
Magnetizability burnishability
     
     
Material No Symbol AISI-SAE 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 kg/dm³ J/kg.K W/m.K Ω.mm²/m Gpa yes no  
1.4006 X10Cr13 410 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,0 - - - 7,7 0,46 30 0,60 216 * - *
1.4016 X8Cr17 430 10,0 10,0 10,5 10,0 11,0 - - - 7,7 0,46 25 0,60 220 * - *
1.4021 X20Cr13 420 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,0 - - - 7,7 0,46 30 0,55 216 * - *
1.4057 X22CrNi17 431 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,0 11,0 - - - 7,7 0,46 25 0,70 216 * - -
1.4301 X5CrNi18 9 304 16,0 17,0 17,0 18,0 18,0 18,5 18,5 19,0 7,9 0,50 15 0,73 200 - * *
1.4305 X12CrNiS 18 8 303 16,0 17,0 17,0 18,0 18,0 18,5 18,5 19,0 7,9 0,50 15 0,73 200 - * *
1.4306 X2CrNi18 9 304L 16,0 17,0 17,0 18,0 18,0 18,5 18,5 19,0 7,9 0,50 15 0,73 200 - * *
1.4310 X12CrNi17 7 301 16,0 17,0 17,0 18,0 18,0 18,5 18,5 19,0 7,9 0,50 15 0,73 200 - * *
1.4401 X5CrNiMo 18 10 316 16,5 17,5 17,5 18,5 18,5 19,0 19,5 19,5 7,95 0,50 15 0,75 200 - * *
1.4404 X2CrNiMo 18 10 316L 16,5 17,5 17,5 18,5 18,5 19,0 19,5 19,5 7,95 0,50 15 0,75 200 - * *
1.4512 X5CrTi12 409 10,5 11 11,5 12 - - - - 7,7 0,46 25 0,60 220 * - -
1.4541 X10CrNTi 18 9 321 16,0 17,0 17,5 18,0 18,0 18,5 18,5 19,0 7,9 0,50 15 0,73 200 - * -
1.4571 X10CrNiMoTi 18 316Ti 16,5 17,5 18,5 18,5 19,0 19,5 19,5 19,5 7,95 0,50 15 0,75 200 - * -


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